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Gamma radiation from cobalt has been used in place of X-rays or alpha rays from radium in the inspection of industrial materials to reveal internal structure, flaws, or foreign objects. It has also…. In medicine, for example, cobalt is extensively employed as a radiation source to arrest the development of cancer. Other radioactive isotopes are used as tracers for diagnostic purposes as well as in research on metabolic processes.

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When a radioactive isotope is added in small amounts to comparatively large quantities…. In all these cases however, despite the risks, the prophylaxis benefits of intervention with iodide, iodate, or perchlorate outweigh the serious cancer risk from radioiodine bioaccumulation in regions where radioiodine has sufficiently contaminatated the environment. Iodine is used for unsealed source radiotherapy in nuclear medicine to treat several conditions.

It can also be detected by gamma cameras for diagnostic imaging , however it is rarely administered for diagnostic purposes only, imaging will normally be done following a therapeutic dose. Major uses of I include the treatment of thyrotoxicosis hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease , and sometimes hyperactive thyroid nodules abnormally active thyroid tissue that is not malignant.

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The therapeutic use of radioiodine to treat hyperthyroidism from Graves' disease was first reported by Saul Hertz in The dose is typically administered orally either as a liquid or capsule , in an outpatient setting, and is usually — megabecquerels MBq. One side effect of treatment is an initial period of a few days of increased hyperthyroid symptoms. This occurs because when the radioactive iodine destroys the thyroid cells, they can release thyroid hormone into the blood stream.

Radioactive iodine treatment is contraindicated in breast-feeding and pregnancy [39].

Production and Distribution of Radioisotopes at ORNL

Iodine, in higher doses than for thyrotoxicosis, is used for ablation of remnant thyroid tissue following a complete thyroidectomy to treat thyroid cancer. Typical therapeutic doses of I are between megabecquerels MBq. Administration of this liquid form is usually by straw which is used to slowly and carefully suck up the liquid from a shielded container. European guidelines recommend administration of a capsule, due to "greater ease to the patient and the superior radiation protection for caregivers". Ablation doses are usually administered on an inpatient basis, and IAEA International Basic Safety Standards recommend that patients are not discharged until the activity falls below MBq.

Patients receiving I radioiodine treatment may be warned not to have sexual intercourse for one month or shorter, depending on dose given , and women told not to become pregnant for six months afterwards. Such a precaution would essentially eliminate direct fetal exposure to radioactivity and markedly reduce the possibility of conception with sperm that might theoretically have been damaged by exposure to radioiodine. Some also advise not to hug or hold children when the radiation is still high, and a one- or two- metre distance to others may be recommended.

I will be eliminated from the body over the next several weeks after it is given.


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The majority of I will be eliminated from the human body in 3—5 days, through natural decay, and through excretion in sweat and urine. Smaller amounts will continue to be released over the next several weeks, as the body processes thyroid hormones created with the I For this reason, it is advised to regularly clean toilets, sinks, bed sheets and clothing used by the person who received the treatment.

Patients may also be advised to wear slippers or socks at all times, and avoid prolonged close contact with others. This minimizes accidental exposure by family members, especially children.

The use of chlorine bleach solutions, or cleaners that contain chlorine bleach for cleanup, are not advised, since radioactive elemental iodine gas may be released. Patient is advised if possible to stay in a room with a bathroom connected to it to limit unintended exposure to family members. Many airports now have radiation detectors to detect the smuggling of radioactive materials.

Patients should be warned that if they travel by air, they may trigger radiation detectors at airports up to 95 days after their treatment with I. The I isotope is also used as a radioactive label for certain radiopharmaceuticals that can be used for therapy, e. In all of these therapeutic uses, I destroys tissue by short-range beta radiation.

It can be seen in diagnostic scans after its use as therapy, because I is also a gamma-emitter. Because of the carcinogenicity of its beta radiation in the thyroid in small doses, I is rarely used primarily or solely for diagnosis although in the past this was more common due to this isotope's relative ease of production and low expense.

Instead the more purely gamma-emitting radioiodine iodine is used in diagnostic testing nuclear medicine scan of the thyroid. The longer half-lived iodine is also occasionally used when a longer half-life radioiodine is needed for diagnosis, and in brachytherapy treatment isotope confined in small seed-like metal capsules , where the low-energy gamma radiation without a beta component makes iodine useful.

The other radioisotopes of iodine are never used in brachytherapy. The use of I as a medical isotope has been blamed for a routine shipment of biosolids being rejected from crossing the Canada—U. Used for the first time in to localize leaks in a drinking water supply system of Munich , Germany, iodine became one of the most commonly used gamma-emitting industrial radioactive tracers , with applications in isotope hydrology and leak detection.

Since the late s, radioactive tracers have been used by the oil industry. Tagged at the surface, water is then tracked downhole, using the appropriated gamma detector, to determine flows and detect underground leaks.


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I has been the most widely used tagging isotope in an aqueous solution of sodium iodide. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Potassium iodide. April Retrieved 11 April Environmental Control in Petroleum Engineering. Gulf Professional Publishers. January—February American Scientist.

In , NCI conducted a detailed evaluation of dose to the thyroid glands of U. Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 17 June February Impact on clinical practice".

Radioisotopes in Medicine, by Earl W. Phelan

Bulletin du cancer. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. August Retrieved 26 October International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved 14 March National Academies Press US. Thyroid Disorders. A Cleveland Clinic Guide. Cleveland Clinic Press. Retrieved 3 April Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 14 November Archived from the original on 18 October Archived from the original on 3 April March Characterization of a liposome model and injury by myeloperoxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and halides". Journal of Immunology. Radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Pharmacy and Nuclear Medicine.

European Association of Nuclear Medicine. Retrieved 27 September Environmental Health Perspectives. Pharmacological Reviews. Report of two cases and a review of the literature". Israel Journal of Medical Sciences. Der Internist in German.

Production and Distribution of Radioisotopes at ORNL - Landmark - American Chemical Society

Sisson, J. Salivary gland uptake of Meta-[I]Iodobenzylguanidine. CRC Press. Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Annals of Nuclear Medicine. Indian J Nucl Med. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. June Annals of the ICRP. Archived from the original PDF on 10 September University of Washington Medical Center. Archived from the original on 28 February


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